Vedic and Scientific explanation of the Big Bang Theory

The unique phenomenon of creation of the Universe could not be explained without giving analogies between science and philosophy.

Throughout the 20th century the researches on Modern Physics about the origin of the Universe have steadily accumulated evidences that the Universe had a beginning and it is created from a ‘Big Bang’. Vedic seers have dwelt upon the creation of the universe from philosophical point of view which always presupposed a creative agent behind it. This creative agent is either subjective or objective. The Nasadiya hymn of Rig Veda (X.129) clearly refers to the objective aspect which is very close to the Belgian scientist George Lemaitre’s primeval zero volume atom and ultimately to the concept of pregnant zero, and the universe was created from that primeval zero- volume atom.

In this paper an attempt has been made to give a philosophical exposition of the ‘Big Bang’ theory of the creation of the Universe as reflected in the Vedas. In Vedic texts Creation of the Universe is discussed from many angles and in Scientific world scientists are also trying their best to explain the creation of the Universe from scientific point of view along with experimental evidences in respect of creation of the universe. In some cases it is found that science and philosophy are converging and in some cases it is seen that they are going parallel. 

Scientists have put forward many theories regarding creation of the Universe. But in cosmology out of all these theories ‘Big Bang’ theory is currently the dominant theory about the early development and current shape of the Universe and it has accumulated strong evidences throughout the 20th century. According to Big Bang theory all the matter, indeed the Universe itself, was created at just one instant.Scientists before the 20th century could not be able to find any experimental evidences in respect of creation of the Universe. Scientists from the 20th century onwards are trying to find out the solution of this problem and have been able to collect some experimental supporting evidences in favor of Big bang theory such as:

  • The Red-shift of galaxies
  • Background radiation
  • Abundance of primordial elements and
  • Distribution of Quasars

and these theories are completely based on the laws of Physics.

Philosophical exposition of Big Bang theory:

Creation of universe was discussed by Vedic seers a long time ago. The Nasadiya hymn 129 of Rigveda Vol X. (verses 1, 2, 3 & 4) clearly refers to the creation of the Universe.


nasadasinno sadasittadanim nasidrajo no vyoma paro yat |
kimavarivah kuha kasya sharmannambhah kimasid gahanam gabhiram ||
There was neither non-existence (asat) nor existence (sat) then. There was neither the realm of space nor the sky which is beyond. What stirred? Where? In whose protection? Was there water, bottomlessly deep? (Only something gahana gambhira )
namrtyurasidamrtham na tarhi na ratrya ahna asit praketah |
anidavatam svadhaya tadekam tasmaddhananna parah kim chanasa ||
There was neither death nor immortality then.
There was no distinguishing sign of night nor of day.
That ONE breathed, windless, by its own impulse.
Other than that there was nothing beyond.
tama asittamasa gur’magre’praketam salilam sarvama idam |
tuchchhyenabhvapihitam yadasittapasastanmahinajayataika||
Darkness was hidden by darkness in the beginning,
With no distinguishing sign, all this was water.
The life force that was covered with emptiness,
That ONE arose through the power of heat.
kamastadagre samavartatadhi manaso retah prathamam yadasit |
Desire came upon that ONE in the beginning,
That was the first seed of mind. If we look at the creation of the Universe in the light of Vedic verses (I,II,III) of the Nasadiya hymns RV.X.129, there is the shadow of the Big bang theory.
The Hymn States that ‘There was no sat and no asat’ which respectively means there was neither existence nor non-existence at that time, and in the Vedic philosophy the words ‘sat’ and ‘asat’ would not have a distinct existence but would be blended and lost in the ‘One’ invisible, immaterial, incomprehensible ‘First cause’ in the intervals of Creation, and in the beginning the first cause was undeveloped in its effects, and existed before either inactive matter or active spirit, considered as distinct, it is not intended to be said that no cause or origin existed before creation.Again in the fourth verse of Nasadiya hymn RV.X.129, there is a clear indication of a Supreme power i.e. tadek who has controlled his mental energy and given birth to ‘Kama’, and in the Vedic philosophy it is said that this ‘Kama’ may be the ‘Sphota’ or may be the biggest bang.
Thus if we compare the Vedic and scientific interpretations of Creation of Universe, we see that as in the Big bang theory the whole Universe was compact to a single point mass that had zero volume i.e. nothingness and the Universe is created from this nothingness i.e. the point mass which is very much similar to the notion i.e. the ‘One’ in Vedic philosophy. Though in Vedic philosophy it is said that the effect sometimes is blended with the cause or it is lost in the cause but there cannot be the effect without its cause such as matter cannot exist without material.

Thus in all the four verses of Nasadiya Hymn the FIRST CAUSE i.e. ‘ONE’ is highlighted which is nothing but the Lemaitre’s Primeval Zero Volume Atom and ultimately concept of pregnant ZERO from which the whole universe was created.

So after a thorough study of the big bang theory and the Vedic verses (I,II,III and IV) of Nasadiya hymns (RV.129) we may come to the conclusion that there is a convergence or a parallel trend of the two schools of thoughts namely the ancient Indian Philosophers and the Modern scientists.

Thus in conclusion we can say that the reality of the Universe, which is still a problem for the scientists, was thoroughly discussed by Indian Philosophers thousands of years back and they are very close to the modern theory. So, if we want to know more about our modern research, we should relearn the philosophical aspects of the Veda thoroughly.

~ by  Dr. Ashok Kumar Das & Dr. Saradamani Das, *Head Department of Physics, Karimganj College; Sr. Lecturer Department of Sanskrit, R.S. Girls’ College, Assam