A Hindu’s (Maria Wirth) open letter to Zakir Naik’s insanity


Hindus generally don’t criticise other religions in spite of the fact that Christianity and Islam not only criticise, but demean Hinduism badly. Zakir Naik is only one example. Do Hindus know what is preached in the innumerable churches and mosques across India? I know for sure that Hindu gods are called devils by Christian missionaries. Yet Hindus neither defend their gods nor challenge the Abrahamic dogmas in spite of having a solid philosophical basis for their beliefs, which is lacking in Christianity and Islam.

Some years ago, Zakir Naik had ridiculed Ganapati and thrown a challenge to prove that Ganapati is God. I assume he means by God the Supreme Being that Muslims call Allah.

Now what do we know about Allah?

Foremost, Allah is great and merciful, and the faithful as well as the unfaithful are loudly reminded of it five times a day. He also knows what all human beings are doing, but is separate from them. It is claimed that Allah has communicated his final words to Prophet Mohamed. Those words are in the Quran. Allah declared that Islam alone is true. So, all human beings must follow Islam because other paths are wrong. And they must hurry up, because every human being has only one life.

Those, who do not accept Islam during their lifetime, will be thrown into eternal hellfire where “boiling water will be poured over their heads that not only melts their skin but also the inner parts of their bellies…” (Q22.19-22)

Clearly, here is where Allah’s mercy ends. He does not brook any dissent. And the Azan, which started compassionately, ends with: “Oh Allah, guide us to the Right Way. The Way of those whom You have favoured, not of those who have earned Your wrath…” Al-Fatiha 1

This means, Allah is merciful only to his followers who are called Muslims and he is wrathful to those who are not Muslims.

Dr. Zakir Naik, I am confident that I got the concept of ‘God’ in Islam right because Christianity has a similar concept. And I dare to claim that it is not true. Can you prove (and this challenge goes also to Christian clerics) that Allah/ God is indeed so unfair and divisive? Can you prove there will be this huge cauldron of fire where billions of people will burn for ever after Judgment Day? Do these claims of “eternal hellfire for unbelievers” not rather have the purpose to keep the flock in check? To divide and rule?

There are about 2 billion Christians, who are told they have to remain Christians, otherwise they can’t go to heaven. And then there are about 2 billion Muslims who are told that they have to remain Muslims, otherwise they can’t go to paradise. Both religions had plenty of time to sort out which one is true, but they did not do it. Why? Because they cannot prove it. They can only make claims and counterclaims and fight among themselves, between Muslims and Christians and with heathens or infidels. They do this for the last 2000 years.

Under these circumstances, can anyone claim that Islam or Christianity is beneficial for humanity? Is it not time to have a thorough check of what REALLY is the truth?

In regard to the absolute Truth, Dr. Zakir Naik, your ancestors, the Indian Rishis, made valuable contributions and you can be proud of them. In ancient times, long, long before Christianity or Islam appeared on the scene, the Rishis had a very mature understanding of Brahman which would be ‘Truth’ or ‘Supreme Being’ or ‘God’ in English. Brahman is not personal, not a superhuman entity somewhere in heaven, not male or female, not jealous of other gods, not revengeful if ignored, but it is Sat-Chit-Ananda, the conscious, one essence in all names and forms – like the one ocean is the essence of all the waves.

The Rishis realised that this universe is a wrong perception of Brahman. They called it Maya, not really true, only apparently true.

For anything to qualify as absolute Truth, it has to be always – past, present and future – and it has to be self-evident.

The Rishis came to the conclusion that nothing fulfils these criteria except pure (= thought free) consciousness. This consciousness is here and now, always, everywhere. Yet we miss it because we focus only on things or thoughts, emotions, etc. – like, when we focus a torchlight in a room only on the furniture and miss the empty space. Infinite space, which throbs with life and love is actually a good metaphor for Sat-Chit-Ananda – the highest truth that underlies names and forms (nama-rupa).

Science has meanwhile discovered the Sat-aspect of the truth. Oneness is there. To discover that this Oneness is also aware (Chit) and blissful (Ananda) scientists would need to turn to their own consciousness to research further instead of looking outside. Let us see whether the scientists will support also the claim of the Rishis that this whole manifestation is alive and full of bliss.

In one point, however, you are right, Dr. Zakir Naik: There is only one Truth, one God, which the wise call by different names. But the nature of it you got wrong. It does not send non-Muslims or non-Christians eternally into hellfire. The Supreme Being is indeed merciful and great.

But you wanted to know whether Ganapati is a deity.

May I explain a bit of your ancestors’ tradition which struck me as most profound when I came to know of it?

Sanatana Dharma is not only about intellectually knowing Sat-Chit-Ananda, but about realising it. Since Brahman is all pervading, it must be also in us (Ayam Atma Brahman). So we can tap and feel it. For this, however, we need to follow certain rules. We need to purify ourselves, lead a moral life, speak the truth, etc. To eat plenty of meat and have plenty of sex is not conducive for this purification. Yet one factor is very conducive: Bhakti – love for God.

Here Hindu Dharma brings in Ishwara.

The concept of Ishwara is close to the Abrahamic notion of a personal God but more benevolent. There is of course no eternal hell for unbelievers. Everyone gets chance after chance in life after life till he realises that he is not a separate wave, but one with the ocean.

Ishwara is God with attributes and has innumerable aspects, as this universe has innumerable aspects or human nature has innumerable aspects. These aspects are personified in different deities and the devotee can choose the one who is dearest to him. It helps to develop love for the invisible Truth – for example through Ganapati.

Those Devas are mistakenly much maligned by Christianity and Islam. They are not separate entities but kind of access points to the one Brahman, which is otherwise unimaginable. It is possible to feel familiar with them, to love them, to talk with them. And the scriptures leave no doubt that devas are ultimately Brahman.

And here, Dr. Naik, you may get an answer to your question whether Ganapati is ultimately the Supreme Being.

The Ganapati Atharvashirsa Upanishad, which is part of the Atharva Veda, states: “Tvameva kevalam karta si, tvameva kevalam dharta si, tvameva kevalam harta si.

Tvameva sarvam khalvidam brahmasi, tvam saksadatma si nityam.”

It means: You alone are the creator, you alone are the sustainer, you alone are the annihilator. All this is Brahman and you are that Brahman. You are indeed the Atman eternally.

This declaration, however, is not unique for Ganapati. It is said for other deities, too.

Yet the fact that this is written in a sacred text, is not proof enough. There are plenty of sacred texts in this world and if everything in them is blindly accepted as true, we end up with all kind of proclaimed truths which are not true. We need to verify what is declared as truth on the touchstone of reason, intuition and experience. If it contradicts all of these, it is not worth believing it and certainly not dying for it.

The proof that all deities are Brahman is because only Brahman really exists. Brahman is like the ocean. The waves are not separate from it. The name with which one worships the Divine, does not matter. What matters is how much devotion one feels. The greater the devotion, the more miracles can happen. Ganapati is loved by millions of Hindus worldwide. He is the door through which they try to access Sat-Chit-Ananda.

Sanatana Dharma is very ancient. And yet the Rishis had such deep insights, for example that the world is a wrong perception of what is really true, like seeing a snake at dusk when in fact there is only a rope. Westerners who ridiculed Hindus because they believe that the world is an illusion keep now quiet as science supports the Hindu view.

Meanwhile NASA scientists have detected the building blocks of DNA in meteorites. The Max Planck Institute in Germany published the first picture of the whole universe. It had an oval shape. Could it be possible that those who ridicule Hindus for worshipping a Shiva lingam might soon rethink their attitude, as well, lest they embarrass themselves?

Great men have come and gone in India’s ancient civilisation. Some have been made into gods. There is nothing wrong with it. The Divine is in all.

It should make you reflect, Dr. Naik that science keeps validating the insights of the Rishis, for example the mindboggling age of the universe, or the ultimate Oneness of all.

Attempts to vilify Indian tradition by you and others are successful because the British weaned Indians away from their tradition and most people know little about it. Yet if you are sincere, you will realise that the wisdom of your ancestors scores high over the worldview and the mind set of Abrahamic religions. The attitude of “We alone are right and you go to hell if you don’t accept our religion” is doing great harm to humanity. It may be helpful for world dominion, but do you want to live in a world where everyone has to wear a straight-jacket?

If I were you, Dr. Naik, I would be worried especially about one thing: what if you wake up after death and there is NO paradise waiting for you? What if all those Jihadis, who were inspired by you, cursed you after realising there was no paradise for them? What if you are taking birth again in another form and reap the fruits of your actions of this life where you consciously or unconsciously distorted the truth? Rebirth is not only mentioned in the Indian texts. There is also plenty of evidence for it – over 3000 cases are documented in the archive of Virginia University.

Dr. Naik, I don’t know how deeply you believe what you preach. I know from personal experience how effective brainwashing in childhood can be. But I also know that it is possible to get out of it, and it seems the older one is, the easier.

For me, it was a great relief to come out of the Christian religious straight jacket and I would encourage you to also genuinely enquire into the truth. Your concept of God is not Truth. You quote a book as support. Truth does not fit into a book. Truth is THAT WHAT TRULY IS.

Your ancestors, the Indian Rishis, spoke from experience, not from book knowledge.

Yours Sincerely

Maria Wirth


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  • Beautifully written with the easiest possible way. Great. Yet, we dont have to justify our claims using our scriptures like the others do. Hinduism is an experience. Om!

  • Ms Wirths article is a presentation of Hindu thought. She had earlier written an open leyter to Pope on conversion. While her call is clear, basically Hindus believe in a Creator and all thoughts are towards realiing that energy.As known all prayers end with a prayer for universal peace. In which other faith does this happen.
    I think none, we believe all good thoughts lead to ultimate TRUTH

  • Dear maria,

    why cant you ask him all thease question in his presence .i mean go and have debate with him then you can come to knw the truthe.

    • Very simple my fren, because he never allows for any replies for his reply nor does he allow room for validation.

      • yup, mostly muslim didn’t like replies about that. i ever join stop arabsasi Nusantara grup, When I debate to them The answer,”I waiting someone more clever than you”. 😛 Only because they can’t debate my answer.

    • I heard he is being detained by Indian Security officials.. no worries they will ask him lot of questions ..
      and probably the questions asked by Maria as well ..

      Let’s see what answers he has to give…

  • Very well compiled… Questions to Zakir
    1. Isn’t Quran an implementation of what the prophet told ? Has it reformed over time ?
    If so, why are you interpreting it for non-peaceful purposes ?

  • Basically this person has bookish knowledge and no Personal Experience!

    Education system is so convenient these days : Study lot of Books and commit everything to memory and if you are able to quote some verse from some book then You are called : “Experienced” and given a title : Dr.

    This is really ridiculous!!

    Education : means to Educe – to Draw from Within. These days people without any experience whatsoever, empty shells are making lot of noise – just to earn their bread and butter and increase their bank balance.

    If you are so well versed in the verses then please note : Lord Krishna : The Supreme GodHead sent one of his foremost followers : Narad Muni to Learn something from a Butcher. May be this is analogy, but the essence is that : in this world, a simple man with a true faith in the Lord is better that an empty vessel with lot of Degrees and making lot of noise!

    Also : no matter what you say : Let me also tell you something from what I have read and I is surely know that it will happen :

    Lord Kalki will appear at the end of this yuga and end all the nonsense that is going on. I wish I too get a chance to ride by his side and serve him.


    the servant

  • Even if you stand up for Hinduism, fellow Hindus dont approve of it. You cannot help person, who doesnt want help……

  • I am a hindu by birth, hardly follow my religion. I believe what I feel is true. I was never taught forcefully preach my religion, and was never taught to criticize other religion. I usually laugh when anyone claims that their religion is the only true path. Liked your article!

  • Truth does not fit into a book. Truth is WHAT THAT TRULY IS… and That is BRAHMAN… or the OMNIPOTENT PARAMATHMA…

  • People like Dr. Naik are not just creating sensationalism and conflict in society, but also misleading millions of innocent muslims. God alone knows how he will suffer for this deed. God created and manages this entire universe, which a human being can only imagine but never perceive. Such a God is definitely not so foolish to give the ultimate truth to just one prophet and capture it in a book and disappear forever! This is how fools think. We all need to wake up and see that God is ALWAYS here, ALWAYS inside us, available to be experienced. Rishis have indeed given the methods to realize this. And what’s still alive and thriving in the Indian tradition is that enlightened masters continue to be born in all ages (including present day) to guide us to realize and KNOW the truth for ourselves, rather than BELIEVE in someone else’s interpretation…

  • With a little bit of help any one can come out of brainwashing and get rid of straight jackets and a single book. Its easy not to eat dead or killed animal flesh and also be happy with limited sex.

  • The entire universe comprises of two categories – inanimate and animate. Jiva is animate. All his activities have single purpose of attaining happiness and avoiding grief. He does not always succeed. On the other hand, he gets enmeshed inescapably in the web created by himself. The Scriptures say that his basic error is that he considers himself to be the body and searches for happiness outside him, even though, in fact, he is bliss himself. That he does not know this is his Avidya (ignorance) and mistaking the body for himself is his Adhyasa (wrong knowledge).

    “How I am not the body?”

    In Sushupti (deep sleep) you have no connection with the body and you enjoy your natural bliss.

    “If it is natural, how do I miss it when awake?”

    It is because you commit the mistake of considering yourself as the body.

    “Why do I commit this mistake?”

    It is because you do not know who you are when you are totally free from the body.

    “Then, who am I?”

    You are Brahman.

    “What is Brahman?”

    It is the material cause of the whole universe including your body.

    “How do I understand that I am Brahman?”

    Brahman is Satyam – unchanging; Jnanam – that stuff which takes the forms of various knowledge like ‘this is a pot’ etc; and Anantam – endless in every sense of the word. And the world is Asatyam – changing; Jadam – inert; and Santam – limited unlike Brahman, though it is not itself bereft from Brahman. The very nature of Brahman is Anandam – bliss. It is one and only one because it is Jnanam.

    The above is the gist of Adi Shankara’s philosophy based on Upanishads, Brahmasutras and Srimad Bhagawadgita.

  • hinduism is the wisdom of ancient sages. Discussion on semantics , like what is a religion, etc is only to divert and dilute the contribution of Hinduism . In any case , what ever may be the mercy of Allah , the plight of muslims all over the world is a reflection of that . Muslims and Christians are misguided. Religion is a way of life. your way of life and what you do believing in your religion , either validates or invalidates your religion . Fighting in the name of God, as if God cannot help himself , if he has such a will , is pure madness .

  • Maria – your writings are brilliant… however you are addressing them to a brain-dead moron, rabble rousing terrorist, hate monging/venom spewing tyrant like Zakir Naik and wasting your time. sort of like telling ISIS (who kills singers) what a great musician Mozart was

  • Dear Maria. I am moved deeply by the beautiful writing on Hinduism. Thanks. I wish this reaches every Hindu child and other misguided people, who ridicule our religion.

  • Very well compiled.
    Sanatana Dharma will stand for all scientific tests. It teaches the absolute truth.

  • A long letter but is something to worth reading. I am surprised how a foreigner understands Indians so well. I am amazed how she explained humanity and Hinduism and other religions with logic and facts. Her thorough knowledge and experience of Western and Indian Philosophy made her capable to write such a nice letter. After a long, I read something good. If whole world would validate their learnings with real truth like she did, whole world would experience peace and harmony in this world. Thanks a lot, Madam.

  • superb write up, i wish i had this much understanding of my religion, but still feel happy for though i do not have this much knowledge no bocy looks down on me.. thats being hindu..democratic

  • A book knowledge is like an atlas.You read about it but never experience it.Experience is truth. Well done Maria.

  • Brilliant writing. Very educative. But it is addressed to Dr. Naik.There is is a proverb saying ” Trumpeting in deaf man’s ears” You cant educate morons like Dr. Naik who intention is creating unrest within the communities.

  • Karma of God was dharma and karma of its suputs were Santana dharma………from there every body is practiceing Sanatana only the difference is on name, place,demography,etc few started practicing early few late they named it accordingly to there priority they made rule book.people near big river started first practice in that case ganges civilization put base of faith first………faith on ` chatti maiya` six sisters of Siva who nurtured `kartika` first sun of Shiva.

  • Hell or Naraka is pointed out in Bhagawata Purana and Devi Bhagawata Purana,along with Garuda Purana and there are no less than 28 types of Naraka defined for various reason. Bhagwad Gita 9.22 clearly says…As for those who worship Me, thinking on Me alone and nothing else, ever attached to Me, I bear the burden of getting them what they need…… Its a very seren message “As for those who worship Me thinking on Me alone and nothing else” ….thats the same message of the Quran, as Naraka is mentioned in the Hindu scripture so its mentioned in Quran too. The only thing is when ever thing went wrong with the people on the surface of the earth the true Almighty (Brahma in Sanskrit or Khaliq in Arabic or God) send Messengers (Rishis in Sanskrit, Rasool in Arabic or Messengers in english) and to some Messengers God gave sacred scirptures as guidance to revert back on Monetheism, that is to just worship one true God.

    • Wat u have said is out of context. It says those who desire to associate eternally him/herself with the supreme being shall whole heartedly concentrate on such thing leaving othr things aside, the supreme being guarantee the unification of conciousness for time immemorial.

      Its like a teacher saying “if u study wholeheartedly with concentration n focus, u will always bear good marks and knowledge”.
      Also the passage doesnt coerce to do so. Its a way. Someone may do n some not. That wont make the non doers less living beings. And it doenst denounce or threaten of tyrannies or hell.

      With respect to Garuda Purana, I agree with u but that wud have been compiled to keep sins at bay. It only says if somone does some bad things they will get some type of puniahment. Its not binding on anybody. Also it doesnt require that anybody shud believe it unanimously. If u wanna believe its ok, not double ok.
      Your lfy, u decide, u live! Nothing else matters.

  • This letter addressed to Zakir Naik need to be translated into all Indian languages. There should be combined effort of every Hindu to counter the vilifying campaign against our ageless civilisation.

  • When you cultivate a crop you need to nourish and nurture the crop, making sure that you remove all the weeds in a timely manner. If your crop is allowed to dwindle due to lack of care and nourishment, weeds will inevitably take over. This is what has happened with Dharama over and over “Yada yada hi Dhramamasya, Glanir Bhavati Bharata……(Bhagavata Gita)”. In this Yuga, particularly in the last few centuries, at the behest of Muslim invaders then European invaders, Hinduism has suffered neglect…..net result is the “crop” is in danger of being inundated by the weeds. All responsible Hindus need to wake up to this fact. Tend to your crop and the weeds will take care of themselves !!!

  • As far as I know Debating about Religion is nonsense. God created us to till this earth and to worship him but we created religion and some extra Gods out of stone or down the roots of a tree. .
    The heaven and hell is for real. Repent for your sin and accept Jesus as your saviour. Know his sacrifice, cause He is the one who came in flesh to tell us about the love and wrath of God. The time for you is short. Know Jesus, know the truth. Forget about debating on religions. These kinds of priests and saints can mislead you. Beware and come to know about “‘ the way,the truth and the life.”‘

    • Wilson: Open your eyes..Your parents had fun and you are the result of their action. Unfortunately you pay for their sinful act of bringing you in this world!..LOL. If you are so committed to going to haven why don’t you hasten by taking poison pill. Sooner the better. You may be missing lots of fund out in haven which your bother and sisters are enjoying!! ,,, LOL.Wake up from this slumber and delusion. The bliss is all around and is within you. “God” is pulsating in every iota of the universe. All you need to do is to search it within YourSelf. I urge you to leave your unscientific irrational religion.
      Remember GOD can not show love and wrath or else is close to DOG. These are human characters and GOD is above these duality. If he project duality then he can’t be infinite and all pervading….
      Wake-up sooner you leave your dogmatic religion better it is for you and the society.

  • Wilson: Open your eyes…your parents had fun and you are the fruit of their action. Now you pay for their sinful act of bringing you in this world.. LOL. If you are so committed to going to heaven why don’t you hasten by taking poison pills. Whom are you waiting for.. sooner the better as you may be missing some fun their that your brothers are already enjoying.. LOL. Wake up from this slumber and delusion. The bliss is all around and within you. All you need to do is to search IT in yourSelf.

  • Maria very well written. Hope it has reached Zakir !Even if it has he just can’t be bothered ! That his mind set. I myself cannot be bothered about Zakir , but the damage it causes on mind set.
    One has to be very tolerant .

  • Maria, your answers are excellent…. You have pointed very important aspects of Hinduism in a very nice manner….Thank you very much.

    Hinduism allows free expression of thoughts and actions. Even an atheist has the right to condemn Hinduism in public and still proudly say “I AM A HINDU.”

    Sadly many do not debate with Zakir, since Hindus hate debates and arguments and without a referee of at least 3 or 4 experts in world religions, it is very difficult to debate Zakir…..


    Apart from that he is quoting Hindu scriptures at random and at the same time, he does not defend anything written in the Holy Koran.





  • Madam, you are right. You have put your point in proper perspective. My only question is why should we waste our effort in explaining this to zakir naik a quack

  • What is the difference between a cult and a religion ?
    If in a cult what happens to the human brain.
    Do you really think a person under the control of a cult. Can ever comprehend such great concepts. ?
    To his mind this is as much goblygook as his views are to you.

    First have a functioning brain. Then you can start to comprehend this article.
    My final analysis on the subject is that following a cult will result in a mind that is insane.
    If enough minds can be put to the same wave length. It almost feels normal. But its still insanity.

  • Well this is a real kick in the azz of Xtians and Zumlims ! they will never change because they have been so dogmatized, brainwashed and pressurized by their priestz and zimams that we cannot sit on a table with them and have a debate… impossible. I think Xtians and Zumlims do not know the reality of God ! they are an incomplete religion !

  • Dear Maria,

    I have gone through your reply to Dr Zakir Naik. I fully agree with your suggestions and arguments to Dr Zakir he is arrogant and God has punished him already. But do not blame ‘ISLAM”. ISLAM was introduced to a tribal people who were not at all civilised and of course not cultured. They were very sentimental and pure hearted people, they didn’t even have an idea of GOD to pray, even do not have the mind to contemplate.And where do they find time to contemplate like our Rishis?. How can you teach a Butcher about GOD? How can you discipline him to act responsibly? only through strict rules& law that is ISLAM. The rules include how many wives you can have to those who are sex maniacs. This religion is for commoners – work, eat & sex with added worship in between as an exercise – certain Yoga.

    To make them at least have fear not do wrong things in life with the promise that if they lead a minimum good life they can achieve paradise. what is wrong in that concept. The concept of Hindus mentioned in your article is for highly contemplated souls.

    Today, I do not see any Muslim who are really following ISLAM. They are interested in showing off ! the burka, long bear … not following a minimum prescription mentioned in ISLAM. it will take generations to understand GOD. till then let them follow what they preach otherwise they will make this planet hellish, worse than Hitler.
    But they have forgotten How Prophet Mohmed got enlighted – By contemplating.

  • Straight Chamat to that Mohammedan’s face.

    Zakir Naik, prove to us empirically Allah is God and Mohammad is the way to God from an outside source. Not from a Muslim quote or a supposed quote from Bhavishya Purana or Bible.

  • I was indeed looking for some strongly written scripts . This illuatrares how good and nobel is hinduism. Hinduism.. never force any human being unlike Islam and the Christianity.

  • Hindus does not convert anyone. Only those religion that fear of their shadow works on converting others and condam other religion. Hinduism is a way of life you are not forced into or have restrictions. Be a human first before talking about religion. Dr Naik is a guy worst religious animal. He cannot unit the middle east Muslim why criticise others??? Need his crowd not open fields.

  • Vow .. brushed up the knowledge and understanding of Hinduism .. very humble and powerful letter for humans with active brain.
    Cheers to life!!

  • Nicely written, giving clear view of this imaginative body of thought called Hinduism, so full of colorful metaphors. For those content with achieving a blissful state of mind and ultimately being annihilated, Hinduism is the answer. For those who believe with humility that one cannot alone undo one’s karma, embrace Jesus Christ as the unique eternally Divine Savior. To each her or his own, with no malice toward others. Science has no role in this, and reason is fallible; no one has access to Truth, apart from mathematics and logic (“cogito ergo sum”).

  • One is not to critisize anything in the holy texts whether ones own or in others. Zakir Naik is egoistic always trying to be clever, knowing and showing off his crammed versions of texts. all religions point tp remaining humble at any costs. He makes a mockery of other religions. Shame on him

  • ‘REALITY’ is ‘one and indivisible’, nothing else is. What we perceive is a ‘phenomenon of that Reality’, a figment of imagination. Getting out of this is what is needed to realise ‘Reality’ that is you, me and everything else perceived. This objective is easily said than done. Much like a house to live that needs to be built. You need the scaffolding to erect it, once finished, the scaffolding is the first to vanish. Similarly, control of the mind, discipline of all kinds, good toughts etc. are all like scaffolding, concept of God and faith also form part of this scaffolding. Once the objective is realised, everything else disappears. Means and ends, that’s all.