Universities Of Ancient India

universities of india

Most Indians today are well aware of the two famous ancient universities of India which also are one of the oldest universities in the world – Takshashila University (Taxila) and Nalanda. But are these the only knowledge centers that existed in ancient India? Education has always been given great prominence in Indian society since the times of the vedic civilization, with gurukul and ashrams being the centers of learning. And with evolving times, a large number of centers of learning were established across ancient India of which Takshashila and Nalanda are the most famous ones known today. Below is a list of major ancient universities that flourished across ancient India.

nalandaNalanda University
Nalanda University was established by Shakraditya of Gupta dynasty in modern Bihar during early 5th century and flourished for 600 years till 12th century. Nalanda was the world’s first university to have residential quarters for both students and teachers. It also had large public lecture halls. Students from countries like Korea, Japan, China, Tibet, Indonesia, Persia and Turkey came to study in this university.

The library of this university was the largest library of the ancient world and had thousands of volumes of manuscripts on various subjects like grammar, logic, literature, astrology, astronomy, and medicine. The library complex was called Dharmaganja, and had three large buildings: the Ratnasagara, the Ratnadadhi, and the Ratnaranjaka. Ratnadadhi was nine stories tall and stored the most sacred manuscripts including the Prajnaparamita Sutra and the Samajguhya.

In 2010, the parliament of India passed a bill approving the plans to restore the ancient Nalanda University as a modern Nalanda International University dedicated for post-graduate research. Many east asian countries including China, Singapore and Japan have come forward to fund the construction of this revived Nalanda University.

takshaTakshashila University
Taxila as it is called today, Takshashila University established around 2700 years ago was home to over 10500 students where the students from all across the world used to come to attain specialization in over 64 different fields of study like vedas, grammar, philosophy, ayurveda, agriculture, surgery, politics, archery, warfare, astronomy, commerce, futurology, music, dance, etc. Famous graduates of this University include the ones like Chanakya, Panini, Charaka, Vishnu Sharma, Jivaka etc. This is the world’s oldest university.

vikramshilaVikramashila University
Vikramashila University was established by Dharmapala of Pala dynasty during late 8th century and flourished for 400 years till 12th century. It was located in the Bhagalpur district of modern day Bihar. It gave direct competition to Nalanda University with over 100 teachers and over 1000 students listed in this University. This university was well known for its specialized training on the subject of Tantra (Tantrism). One of the most popular graduates from this University was Atiśa Dipankara, a founder of the Sharma traditions of Tibetan Buddhism who also revived the Buddhism in Tibet.

valabhiValabhi University
Valabhi University was established in Saurashtra of modern Gujarat at around 6th century and it flourished for 600 years till 12th century. Chinese traveler Itsing who visited this university during the 7th century describes it as a great center of learning. Gunamati and Sthiramati, the two famous Buddhist scholars are said to have graduated from this University. This University was popular for its training in secular subjects and students from all over the country came to study in this University. Because of its high quality of education, graduates of this University were given higher executive posts.

pushpagiriPushpagiri University
Pushpagiri University was established in ancient Kalinga kingdom (modern day Odisha) and was spread across Cuttack and Jajpur districts. It was established in 3rd century and flourished for the next 800 years till 11th century. The university campus was spread across three adjoining hills – Lalitgiri, Ratnagiri and Udayagiri. This was one of the most prominent centers of higher education in ancient India along with the universities of Takshashila, Nalanda and Vikramashila. The Chinese traveler Xuanzang (Huien Tsang) visited this university in 639 CE. Lalitgiri is said to have been commissioned by early 2nd century BCE itself and is the oldest Buddhist establishments in the world. Recently a few images of Emperor Ashoka have been discovered here, and it has been suggested that the Pushpagiri University was established by Emperor Ashoka himself.

OdantapuriOdantapuri University
Odantapuri University was established by Dharmapala of Pala dynasty during late 8th century in Magadha (which is in modern day Bihar) and flourished for 400 years till 12th century. The famous Acharya Sri Ganga who was a professor at the Vikramashila University was a graduate of this Odantapuri University. According to the ancient Tibetan records there were about 12,000 students studying at this University. Ancient Tibetan texts mention this as one among the five great Universities of its time, the other four being Vikramashila, Nalanda, Somapura and Jagaddala Universities – all located in ancient India.

somapuraSomapura University
Somapura Mahavihara was established by Dharmapala of Pala dynasty during late 8th century in Bengal and flourished for 400 years till 12th century. The University spread over 27 acres of land of which the main complex was 21 acres was one of the largest of its kind. It was a major center of learning for Bauddha Dharma (Buddhism), Jina Dharma (Jainism) and Sanatana Dharma (Hinduism). Even today one can find ornamental terracotta on its outer walls depicting the influence of these three traditions.

Other Ancient Universities
The above mentioned list is not a complete list of ancient Indian universities either. Dharmapala of Pala dynasty alone is said to have established 50 mega learning centers across his kingdom, and they have been as huge and as popular as the ones mentioned above. For instance, the Munshiganj Vihara discovered as recently as Marh 23, 2013 in Bengal is said to have been established in 9th century and was home to 8000 students who came from faraway places like China, Tibet, Nepal and Thailand.

Destruction of Ancient Indian Universities
As you can see, many of the universities mentioned above came to an end around 12th century. The universities like Nalanda, Vikramashila etc were destroyed around this period during the Muslim invasion of India by the fanatic Bakhtiyar Khilji from Turkey in 1193 CE. The great library of Nalanda University was destroyed, ransacked and burnt by the soldiers of Khilji’s army and it is said that it was so vast that the manuscripts kept burning for three months. In-numerous number of ancient Indian manuscripts carefully preserved for thousands of years were destroyed in this fire. Thousands of monks in the University were burnt alive and beheaded by Khilji’s army. According to DC Ahir, the destruction of these centres of learning at Nalanda and other places across northern India was responsible for the demise of ancient Indian scientific thought in mathematics, astronomy, alchemy, and anatomy.

~ By Gurudev



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  • Bhaktiar Khilji is not from Turkey. His Khilji tribe is originally from Central Asia but settled in Southern Afghanistan where Bhaktiar Khilji was born. Common mistake which many people make is equating the Turks who invaded India with the Turks of Turkey. The Turks who invaded India were from Central asia, they have nothing to do with Turkey. The descendents of people of Turkey are mostly Greeks/Slavs/Armenians/Persians who after being forcefully converted into Islam were assimilated into Turkic identity during the Seljuk and Ottoman times.

  • In my previous comment, ” The descendants of people of turkey….” should be corrected as ” The ancestors of people of Turkey….”

  • What the successive invaders could accomplish was to merely destroy these universities, books and scholars. What they could never and will never destroy is knowledge, scholarship and the ability to rediscover them – an innate trait of the Indians. We Indians will regain not just the lost treasures but the glorious civilization that has characterized this great nation!

  • Its pathetic that even today we try to be politically correct to the Christian and Islam invaders who not only destroyed the entire heritage of India but in every corner of the Earth. Pathetic thing is they still are doing and we try to pacify ourselves stating that this is a peace loving country with Sanathana Dharma and its our fault we allowed all this. History keeps on reapeating and yet we still hope them to understand ???

  • It is so depressing to read about it again that 9 storied building , in 12 th century itself, was burnt with sacred manuscripts of various fields. Such is the barbarism of islamic invaders, who themselves must have been completely illiterates. These illiterates burnt our past and future both along with the libraries! These barbarics must be burning in hell eternally. Mata saraswati must have cried. Can we ever recover our lost treasures? If only we can!!

    Such atrcities are still happening in our society, in disguise, mainly by christians. These christian missionaries have targeted illiterate people before, but now that people are getting educated, they are targeting other vulnerable sections of society, such as mentally challenged/handicapped children. I know of one case in nandyal town in kurnool dist of Andhrapradesh, goes by name ‘usha manovikas special school for mentally challenged children’ doing such coversions, in the guise of looking after vulnerable people. it is time the temples or hindu groups start working for such causes.

  • Thanks for the amazing information!! I will be happy to read more about this. Can you please provide me the source(s) of this article?

  • It is told that a branch of Takshsila university was established in Mulvagilu ( The present day Mulabagilu) of karnataka Andhra Border on the way to Thirupathi from Bangalore.and was ruined by the Muslim Invaders along with Srinrusimhadevaru temle which was burried entirely by the locals to save the temple overnight. There are innumerable temples and other places of interest in this place to see even today. any light on this from known scholars is welcome

  • Fantastic information. Thousands of years back we had world class universities with students coming and studying in it. Now not a single university which comes in first 50 in global rating. It is disturbing indeed.

  • It is high time Bharat changed all foreign place, street, object, etc, names to hindustani names, based on original names if possible.

    • Yep.
      And moreover there is no point of grieving about spilt milk.
      Lets again create great seats of learning.
      But this time also provide the security.

  • 100% of Ancient Buddhism knowledge is still now well protected by Tibetans through ages even at the cost of their life.
    When Tibetans lost their country they considered bringing heavy books of buddhist philosophy safely to india more important than carrying enough food supply when crossing torturous himalayan mountains.