Varakh / Silver Foil is NOT VEGETARIAN


Did you lend second thoughts to the ultra thin layer of silver that covers your sweets or paan? Maybe not! However, this ultra thin layer of silver or ‘varakh’ as it is known as, should not be taken for granted. Investigations by organizations such as Beauty Without Cruelty (BWC) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of India have revealed that the bulk of the varakh available in the country is non-vegan and non-vegetarian besides containing harmful metals that are carcinogenic in nature.

What makes the varakh non-vegan and non-vegetarian?

varak-5If you look beyond the glitter of varakh, into the sheds where it is produced, and at the lives that are sacrificed to make this possible, you would think twice before buying that box of sweets topped with the precious silver foil!

Silver foil, or varakh, as it is generally known in India, adds glitter to Indian sweets (mithai), supari (betel nut), paan (betel-leaf), and fruits. Also it is used in Ayurvedic medicines and on deities in many Jain temples. The silver-topped sweet is even served as prasad in temples and on auspicious and religious occasions. Varakh is also used in flavored syrups as in kesar (saffron) syrup.

Several years ago, as suggested by BWC, Indian Airlines instructed their caterers to stop the use of varakh on sweets (mithai) served on board their flights. Today, many ask for sweets without varakh, having realized the cruelty involved in its preparation.

According to a feature article in Business India, an astounding 275 tons of silver are eaten annually into foil for sweets and chyavanprash! That is a whopping 2,75,000 kilograms! (At the present market rate that would cost a phenomenal Rs. 165 Crore or $ 40 million U.S. Dollars).

Just how is varakh made and what is it that makes its preparation and consumption so sinful?

Varakh is not derived from an animal source. However, a crucial material of animal origin, ox-gut, is used in its manufacture. This ox-gut is obtained from the slaughterhouse.

In the by lanes of the villages of Ahmedabad and other cities, amidst filthy surroundings, placed between layers of ox-gut, small thin strips of silver are hammered to produce the glittering foil.

The intestine (ox-gut), smeared with blood and mucus, is pulled out from the slaughtered animal by the butcher at the slaughterhouse, and sold for the specific purpose. Note that it is not a by-product of slaughter, but like everything else meat, hide, and bones are sold by weight. This is then taken away to be cleaned and used in the manufacture of varakh.

The gut of an average cow, measuring 540 inches in length and 3 inches in diameter, is cut open into a piece measuring 540″ x 10″. From this, strips of 9″ x 10″ are cut to give approximately 60 pieces of ox-gut, which are then piled one onto another and bound to form a book of 171 leaves.

Next, small thin strips of silver are placed between the sheets and the book slipped into a leather pouch (note that the use of leather-an animal product again). Artisans then hammer these bundles continuously for a day to produce extremely thin foils of silver of 3″ x 5″.


The leather and ox-gut, being supple, can withstand the intense manual hammering for up to 8 hours a day till such time as the silver is beaten to the desired thickness. When ready, the foil is carefully lifted from between the leaves of ox-gut and placed between sheets of paper to be sold to the sweet makers (mithaiwallas). A booklet of 160 foils weighs approximately 10 grams and costs about Rs. 200 ($5.00).

To make a single booklet of 171 sheets, the guts of 3 cows are used. And the yield per book is generally 160 foils of silver, the rest of which may be damaged or unfit for use. Thus one book, used on an average of 300 days of the year yields approximately 48,000 foils of silver which means that each ox-gut yields an estimated 16,000 foils.

The leather used for the pouch to hold the book (made from ox-gut), is cowhide or calf leather, and uses about 232 sq. inches of material. Assuming the size of an average cowhide to be 18 sq. ft or 2,600 sq. Inches, the yield per hide will be approximately 10 leather pouches.

According to estimations made by BWC, around 12,000 animals are slaughtered to produce one kilogram of cruelty varakh. In India, the annual consumption of varakh is around 30,000 kilograms. A straight calculation reveals that 3,60,000,000 animals are killed for that ultra thin layer of silver we consume via our sweets and at times via paan, fruits, and in chvyanprash.

Thus, an average middle class Indian family of four consuming approximately 100 kg of sweets per year for forty years consumes silver foil produced with the gut of 3 cows and one-tenth of a cowhide!

India is not the only country where foil is made by such methods. In Germany, small-specialized enterprises produce gold leaf, which is beaten down to 1/10,000-millimeter thickness, for decorative and technical purposes by similar methods. The Jews use the gold foil for as much the same purposes, namely for food preparations, as it is in India.

In India the 275 tons of silver that are beaten annually into varakh utilize intestines of 516,000 cows and calf leather of 17,200 animals each year.


What makes the varakh carcinogenic?

Often, the silver is adulterated with other metals such as aluminum. Aluminum is hazardous for health and carcinogenic in nature.

Other reasons to stop consuming varakh

Cruelty varakh is made under extreme unhygienic conditions and is a by-product of the unorganized sector. The varakh manufacturing process employs children as well.

Isn’t this sad?!

Here’s what you can do: Some suggestions

  • Refuse sweets with a coating of varakh. Does it matter in any good way if your sweets contain varkah? But, your action of refusing varakh will matter to the lives and security of millions of helpless animals!
  • Report to the FDA if you find that a particular sweet shop is using cruelty varakh. The FDA has the mandate to act on such cases. But, the body cannot go ahead until a complaint has been registered.
  • Demand for or suggest cruelty-free varakh to the sweet shops, temples, and fruit vendors.

Kanishka:  Cruelty-Free Varakh 

For certain human habits to change and be replaced by cruelty-free, compassionate habits, it always helps when there are alternatives available. A Jaipur-based company Kanishka’s varakh is cruelty-free and machine-made, a fact that has been recently certified through BWC-led investigations. Kanishka is the only varakh company in India that has been certified as 100% cruelty-free. According to BWC, Kanishka varakh has also been tested by sweet shops owners and found to be satisfactory. A spokesperson from the Kanishka company stated that their product is ‘better’ than cruelty varakh in every possible way!

Kanishka varakh is produced and supplied on order. The company supplies to numerous sweet shops in different parts of the country. Please find out where your sweet shops procure the varakh from. Suggest cruelty-free varakh to them. Let our asking create an informed demand for cruelty-free varakh. Anybody interested can get in touch with Kanishka at telephone numbers 91-141-257 4888 or cell 91-9929978888 respectively, to seek more information.

Jainam Silver Products Pvt. Ltd.


Jainam is another reputed manufacturer and supplier of vegetarian silver and gold leaves and uses fully automatic and computerized machines to produce varakh.  Their products are made of 99.99% pure silver and are laboratory certified.  The processing and packing  pass through extreme consciousness and hygienic standards.  Proper post-production checks are also made in order to avoid the chances of any flaws and defects.  They can be reached at 91-79-22130154 or 91-79-32925270.

There may be more companies out there but these are the only certified ones that we could find.

Many sweet shop owners and temple priests are aware of the fact that the varakh procured from the unorganized sector is non-vegetarian. Yet, they keep silent about it and when questioned, they almost always insist that the varakh used by them is cruelty-free and made with unadulterated metals! This is far from the truth. However, as consumers we can refuse cruelty varakh and this action of ours can help control innocent animals from being mindlessly slaughtered for that dubious ultra thin layer of silver on the sweet!


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  • Dear Admin,

    Now a days there is a way to make Vegetarian varakh as well !!

    Anyways this post is very enlightening … I’m just curious !!

    • Yes, and it is mentioned at the end of the article as well along with a details of few companies who made them.

  • This article should be shared and brought to the attention of your Pundits and Mandir administrators. In our own little way, we can help put a stop to this type of production. As there is a friendly product available, we should use it. Thank you very much for posting.

  • The use of silver foil was not stopped because how it was made but because of aluminium adulteration. Likewise the preparation of sago (sabudana) involved extremely unhygienic conditions but nobody stopped its consumption.

  • This is kind of a initiative we can take first and stop consuming Varakh until it is cruelty free..we go ahead and ask to sweet shops…….awareness is always very important and thanks to admin who posted this meaningful information..i would love to share in my surrounding starting from my family first….as far sabudaana is concerned, we don’t eat that much…we use only Shri VARALAKSHMI Sabudaan

  • good to recieve this information. Will definitely spread the word around, and not to forget to ask how the varak they use is made and obtained from.

  • All vegetarians must stop consuming varak.
    Shame on sweets makers and sellers.
    Oh My God it is made from Holy Cow/ Bull intestines
    Wake up dears Wakeup atleast now…!!!

  • Please let me know the address/ email of the authority ,who can stop this production so that I can send a report. And will ask my friends also to report..thanks

  • I and my followers have taken decision to avoid anything which comes from cruelty to animals. I had high blood pressure but when I went vegan my B.P. is normal and I can work from 7AM tio 2 AM daily.

  • I am Jain pure vegetarian.please advise me how I will come to know that product offered is machine mfr. guarantee and put green symbol on pkg pls let me have adress of Ahmedabad dealer.

  • Silver Leaves Manufacturing technology is evolved by KV Automation Ghaziabad Uttar Pradesh . This company provides machinery and project process I.e. fully veg . Mentioned company Jainam Silver leaves is also a customer of KV Automation and this company was 4th project of KV Automation . After that Silver Leaves project provided to two other Jain Customers named as Arihant Silver Leaves and Jainson Silver Leaves . Anoop Silver Leaves ( G C Company ), ART Silver Luck now , Silver Star Shree Jagnnath sterling project also used services and full project Consultation of KV Automation . Mr T S Singh owner of KV Automation is the man behind all development and theory of this pure veg process .
    We recommend those who want Shudhdh silver leaves to purchase it from Shree Aditya Silver Leaves or order online at snap deal or shop clues or Amazon .

  • this is not true always, coz i bought varkh myself and it was place over stripes of newspaper. and i believe newspaper is not killing cows.

  • Surely there is Veg Varakh option.
    Now 50 % of varakh is veg. Its credit goes to KV Automation Team . Who evolved Veg technology and process in India first time. Also these varak are safe to consume and 100 % hygienic.
    Jainam Silver Product is fourth plant established by this company. but they are producing 100 % or trading non veg also i’m not sure as i studied market and found some non veg processing varak labours in jaipur. they told me that jainam silver also buy from them. so be aware before you use. I studied market more than 2 years so i found only Varnika Varak Brand 100 % authentic for Silver and Gold Leaves.
    you too can visit their plant at Delhi-NCR. or go to web

  • It’s not necessary that it’s always made from products obtained from animals we make machine which doesn’t use any animal fat it makes varak / silver foil through high pressure cold rolling process lubricant required could be any oil which won’t effect taste of sweets like milk fat (desi ghee) or refined vegetable oil or soyabeen oil or olive oil.